Everything about Shiraz City

Shiraz known as the city of flowers and mysteries, is considered to be the cradle of art, culture and Iranian art. Due to its numerous monuments and beautiful gardens, it is always considered one of the most popular tourist destinations in Iran. shiraz city is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia ;capital of Fars Province and 5th populous city of Iran. During the Zand Monarcy from 1750 until 1800 shiraz was the capital of Iran. The city of Shiraz, the capital of Fars province, lies on the slopes of the Zagros Mountains and in the southwest of the country. The city's surroundings are surrounded by high mountains that are of special importance for the city. The average temperature in Shiraz is between 30 and 5 ° C.

History of shiraz city :

In 2007,when the workers were digging the land in southwest of Shiraz, they encountered mud flaps related to the Elam II civilization, referring to the city called Tirazis.

This word is probably derived from the name Sirjajis in Old Persian. It is understood that the pronunciation of this word has become "Shiraz" over time due to the regular change of sounds in modern Persian. The name of Shiraz is taken from the name of the son of Shah Tahmurth. In 1935 a group in Persepolis searched explorations led to the clay of Elamite epics. Some of these epitaphs were named from a place called Tizaris or Shiraz. Otherwise, in other cases, the name of Shiraz has been found in ancient inscriptions. According to the History of Iran (published by Cambridge University), the Sasanian era is considered to be a permanent residence in Shiraz.

In the year 1180 AH, Karim Khan Zand chose Shiraz as the capital, and this rebounded the city. Many of the monuments that are now visible in Shiraz were built during the Karim Khan era. With the Qajar dynasty, Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar transferred the capital from Shiraz to Tehran, which in part led to the loss of the city's prosperity.

After World War II, the prosperity and development continued & return to Shiraz, So finally in 1974, after the Tabriz city, Isfahan and Mashhad, shiraz city was among the big and populated cities of Iran.

Spring in Shiraz city:

Spring in Shiraz have a different color from all cities of Iran when the spring aroma spread the atmosphere. To illustrate the spring in Shiraz, you cannot talk about the thousands of colorful scenes created by those flowers. Most Shiraz travel logs contain memorable moments of the May experience in the city. Many people know the spring of Shiraz with its historical works such as Narenjestan Qavam. But you can not talk about the spring in this city and he did not speak from the alleyway even palaces. It can be said that April & may be the best time to travel to Shiraz due to the extraordinary pleasant weather that is often accompanied by rain drops and floral aromas of spring flowers. During the spring season the smells of orange blossom trees in Eram garden will inspire all.. shiraz has many tourist attractions; there attractions are divided into Historical, natural & religious attractions.

Historical attraction of Shiraz:

Shiraz city has countless historical places, a list of the most important historical places of Shiraz with a brief explanation is presented to you.

Hafez Tomb:

The tomb of Hafez (Hafezieh) is a tomb located in the north of Shiraz city and is one of the most crowded streets of this city, and it houses the tomb of Hafez Shirazi, the great poet of the eighth century AD. The complex consists of 2 hectares of land, consisting of 2 northern and southern avenues, separated from each other by a hall called Hafezieh Hall, which is one of Zandian's works.

Architecture of the tomb include The outer dome which is the form of a Turkish dervish hat and a symbol of the sky. Inside this dome is adorned with turquoise blue, purple red, black, white and brown. Hafezieh is known as the first choice of Shiraz passengers in all days of the year.

Here is one of famous poem of hafez as below:

“Listen: this world is the lunatic's sphere, Don't always agree it's real,

Even with my feet upon it And the postman knowing my door

My address is somewhere else.”

Saadi Tomb:

The tomb of Sa'di, known as Sadiyeh, is located at the end of Bustan Street and near the Delgosha Garden on a hillside in the north-east of Shiraz. This complex includes the tomb of Saadi, the great poet of the seventh century AD, and number of other scholars and poets. The tomb building is in Iranian style and has 8 columns of brown stone. The basement is decorated with white stone and tile. The outer of this tomb is in the shape of a cube, but it has an octagonal shape that is covered with marble walls.

Here is one of famous poem of saadi named The Grass of God's Garden as below:

The Grass of God's Garden

by: Saadi (c. 1213-1291)

translated by Edward S. Holden

I saw bouquets of fresh roses

Tied upon a cupola of grass
.
I asked: "What is despicable grass

To sit also in the line of the roses?"

The grass wept and said: "Hush!

Companionship does not obliterate nobility.

Although I have no beauty, color, and perfume,

Am I not after all the grass of God's garden?"

Karimkhani citadel :

Karimkhani citadel is quadrangle building located in the center of Shiraz city. More than 200 years ago at Zandy's time, was ordered by Karim Khan and built with the finest materials and located in the center of Shiraz. Its built on an 12800 meters area which 15 meters brick walls & towers are visible from the outside. This place became the home of Karim Khan after Shiraz was chosen as the capital. The main hall of the citadel & official building was used as the residence of zand dynasty family. The citadel is a combination of two types of residential and military architecture. In the inner part, there are porches and painted rooms, waterfalls and gardens. The exterior of the building is brick and walls have a height of 12 meters and each corner is a 15-meter tower. The eye-catching views of the citadel attract the visitors. Lack of decoration from the outside is the sign of Isfahani architecture symbol with the presence of elegant and beautiful interior decorations.

Eram Garden:

Eram Garden 3th Persian garden located in the Shiraz city, which includes several monuments. It is said that the garden was built at the time of Seljuk. Karim Khan Zand contributed for improvement of this garden. Construction of the mansion in this garden during the Qajar period and at the same time as the residence of the head of Qashqai tribe was carried out in this garden. This mansion, which is considered to be the central core of the garden, is built to imitate the style of Zandy architecture and is considered one of the masterpieces of the Qajar era architecture. The upper floors of the mansion include columns inspired by Persepolis.

Narenjestan Ghavam Garden:

In 1973 and with the appointment of Qavam al-Saltaneh to the Persian government, a collection was made at his residence place and on his orders. This collection, known among people to the garden of Qavam, is located at the end of the street, Lotf Ali Khan Zand, and is now known as Narenjestan Qavam due to its exterior designation. The complex consists of several elements, the most important of which are Gachineh bath, Hosseiniyeh Qavam, Ghavam school, Androni Qavam (Zinat al-Molk house), Qavam court (Narenjestan) and Ghavam exclusive bathroom.

Vakil bazaar:

Among the markets in Shiraz, the vakil market which is located at the vakil complex has a special reputation. The vakil bazaar located in the municipality square near the Karim Khan citadel was considered to be the place for all trading in the city. Architecture of this bazaar is inspired by the Qeiysariyeh bazaar of Lar and Isfahan traditional bazaar. Vakil bazaar has three distinct space include Pathway, privacy of the stores and the space of the shop.

Qoran gate:

Shiraz city had six gates in the past. The Qoran gate is one of the gates of the Shiraz ancient time which today is considered one of the historical monuments of this city. When you reach the shiraz city from the Isfahan road, you will face with the Qoran gate which considered as the entrance of the city.This monument dates back to the time of azd al-Dowlah Deylami. They set in valuable Sultan Ibrahim handwriting qoran on top of the gate before , so that passengers would be blessed with passing through it. The Quran's gate during the Qajar period suffered a lot of damage due to several earthquakes; which Mohammad Zaki Khan Nouri repaired it. This building is also called the vault of the qoran. Today mention qoran is kept on Paris museum. Its only remain the name of qoran gate. The current Qur'an gate has been donated to the people of Shiraz which rebuild a charity person named Hussein Igar known as “Etemad al-Tejar”.

Persepolis:

In 518 BCE, A large number of architecture, engineers and artists came from all over the world, with the participation and thought to establish the first demonstration to be a symbol of universal unity and peace and equality for thousands of years.

Iranians in the sixth century before the Christ succeeded to establish an empire under the leadership of Cyrus the Great and under the rule of Darius the Great. That Empire Extending from the Danube River in Europe to the Aral Sea in central Asia, and from the Indian Ocean and the Sindh to the Abyssinia and Libya. In fact, they commanded on the half of the world on that time.

In 518 BCE Darius ordered the construction of a shrine palace in the land of Fars, and finally the magnificent monuments of Persepolis built on a large cliff of Meh kooh Mount in Marvdasht.

In fact, the construction of the Persepolis continued until 188 BC, until the end of the Achaemenid rule in 330 BC and never ended. There are half-palaces in Persepolis which indicating the lack of opportunity to complete it.

So far, more than 30 thousand inscription have been obtained from the exploration of Persepolis. Most of those inscriptions now kept in America. It was determined that during the period of Persepolis activity, workers receive salary, women and men was equal rights, and Women could work or work part-time. Women had equal inheritance. Mothers received social protection from child & children had social supports.

The methods of repairing the monuments of Persepolis in ancient times was really wonderful. Since the construction of the Persepolis is never finished, it can be concluded that its monuments and structures could have been damaged by the slightest impact, but architects with their special initiatives turned away from these possibilities & repair damaged rocks.

Naqsh-e Rostam:

The Naqsh-e Rostam is one of the most important and beautiful ancient monuments located about 5 km from Persepolis, located at Haji Abad Mount. Tomb of some Achaemenids kings, including Darius the Great and Xerxes, is one of the most prominent events of the Sassanian era, including the restoration of Ardeshir Babakan and the victory of Shapur I on the Roman emperors, a building called the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, and the ruined ruins of the Elamites era in the Naqsh-e Rostam.

The tomb of the four Achaemenid Kings was in the Naqsh-e Rustam. Each of the four tombs has a creatural form and is located at the heart of the mountain with considerable altitude.

In the Naqsh-e Rostam there are three ancient periods sign:

The artworks of the Elamite period from 600 to 2000 BC

The art works of the Achaemenid period from 600 to 330 BC

The art works of Sassanid works from 224 to 651 AD

The area of Naqsh-e Rostam plays a significant role both religiously and nationally.

Ka'ba-ye Zartosht in Naqsh-e Rostam: The Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is the name of the quadrangle stone building and the stepping stone in the area of Naqsh-e Rostam. The distance between the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht (Kaaba Zoroaster) and the mountain is 46 meters and is exactly opposite the Tomb of Darius II, and its shape has a rectangular cube and it has only one entrance. The material of this building is white limestone and its height is about 12 meters, with counting the Triple stairs reaches 14.12 meters heights; and the side of each base is about 7.30 meters long.

This building was built during the Achaemenid period and there is no information about the name of the building at that time, but in the Sassanid period it was called Bon Khanak, and the local name of this building is also Kornaye manzel or Naghare manzel and the current name of Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is use in new era and changed from 14th century. These days they have speculated that Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is the location of keeping avesta book and government documents or the place of the treasury of the court or the Fire Temple. But Ghias abadi researches claims that the building is the most advanced, precise and finest building of the sunny calendar of the world in comparison with all the sunny calendars around the world.

Religious attraction in Shiraz:

Shah cheragh mausoleum:

Shah cheragh is the most famous religious building in Shiraz. The Shah cheragh divide into mosque and mausoleum which is located north of Ahmadi street. Tomb of Ahmad Ebn Musa Kazem (the eldest son of Imam Musa Kazem) and Mohammed Ebn Musa (one of Imam Reza's brothers).

The date of the death of Ahmed Ebn Musa is not exactly known, but some historians have mentioned the date of death about the 819 AD, the same death year of Shia 8th Emam reza .Shah cheragh was built during the Atabakan era of Fars, the sixth century AH. The shrine's structure consists of an ivory in front and a large shrine behind the porch. Inside the shrine is decorated with colorful mirrors and Persian and Arabic lines decorated with beautiful tiles.

Ali Ebn Hamzeh tomb:

The tomb of Imamzadeh Seyyed Ali Ebn Hamzah (Peace be upon him) is located in the local area near the Isfahan gate at the end of Qoran gate street in Shiraz. It has a grand and beautiful shrine and sanctuary. The open space which is nearly three size bigger than closed space is located in the courtyard on the south side of the building. Entrance and service areas are located in the other courtyard. The closed space of the complex consists of two parts.

The main space of the monument of Ali Ebn Hamzeh tomb has been mirrored decoration.

Decorative doors and exquisite windows are another part of the tomb decorations. On the mosque is an icon of wood, inlay and steel. At the entrance of the shrine, installed a red stony piece which is manuscripts on Thuluth beautiful line of Ibrahim Sultan, son of Shahrokh Teimouri.
The main building of the mosque was built at the time of Azd al-Dowlah Deylami, according to the historical traditions of his grave, his grave is also near the Ali Ebn Hamzeh tomb.

During the Timurid period, Safavid & Zandiyeh era on year 1274 AH, during the reign of Naser-al-Din Shah Qajar, Tahmasb Mirza (Mu'id al-Dowlah) has been repaired and the contemporary period has been several times restored and repaired. Ali Ebn Hamzeh tomb is one of the few monuments left from the Deilamian era in Shiraz. The dome is crafted and elegant, which is unique of its kind.

Special Art works of this monument is an stone inscription 3 meters in length in the Ibrahim Sultan manuscripts, son of Shahrokh Teimouri.

The Immortal Imam's decoration tomb has attract each visitors. The entrance door of this tomb is old and very beautiful. Around the building there has been a large cemetery in the past that has become an industrial conservatory and a national garden in the contemporary period.